Artículo del departamento de nutrición de Phartec SAC basado en el trabajo de campo realizado por el M.V.Z Esp Ricardo Lizarzaburo Castanino
La acidosis ruminal es el trastorno digestivo más común en el ganado vacuno y causa mucho daño en la salud y productividad de los lotes.
Para incrementar la producción animal es necesario mejorar el aporte de energía, proteína, minerales y vitaminas. Ante el aumento de la capacidad de producción del ganado vacuno ha sido necesario adaptar los sistemas de alimentación ya que un aporte exclusivo con forrajes no sería suficiente para cubrir las necesidades del animal, teniendo en cuenta que la capacidad del rumen es limitada y que la producción y calidad del forraje en muchas zonas no es óptima. Se ha optado por incrementar el contenido de cereales en la ración (más aporte de nutrientes con menor volumen). Estos contienen carbohidratos que son rápidamente fermentables y favorecen la producción de ácido láctico y un cambio en la configuración de los ácidos grasos volátiles en el rumen provocando el descenso del pH e incrementando el riesgo de acidosis ruminal.
El exceso de acidez ruminal puede dar lugar a una baja del consumo total del alimento, pobre utilización de la fibra y del alimento, diarrea, baja de la producción de grasa de la leche , laminitis y finalmente la muerte.Los rumiantes tienen un sistema muy complejo para tamponar los ácidos producidos durante la fermentación ruminal; la capacidad tampón del líquido ruminal depende principalmente de la secreción de saliva, la cual es rica en sales minerales particularmente fosfato y bicarbonato; los rumiantes pueden secretar grandes cantidades de saliva ( cantidad aproximada para neutralizar entre el 30 y 50% de los ácidos producidos) que se van a ver afectadas por varios factores como el porcentaje de materia seca y de forraje, fibra efectiva, tamaño de la partícula, nivel de ingesta, tiempo de rumia, etc.
Los buffers que se pueden emplear en la dieta pueden reducir la acidez ruminal y proporcionar un ambiente favorable para la actividad del microbioma. Se les emplea exitosamente en el control de los síntomas de la acidosis ruminal sub aguda y la disminución del porcentaje de grasa en la leche, el bicarbonato y el sesquicarbonato de sodio han sido los buffers inorgánicos más usados y han mostrado efectividad en neutralizar la acidez ruminal y estabilizar el pH, sin embargo, su acción no tiene una duración prolongada y ante el aumento de uso de dietas que propician la proliferación de la acidez en el rumen es necesario el empleo de buffers de mayor residualidad, la estructura en forma de panal del alga lithothamnium permite que haya una lenta liberación de los minerales en el medio ácido del rumen lo que permite que tenga una acción buffer sostenida por más horas.
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